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Lebanon History 4000 Years, Historical texts, Greek, Roman Byzantine and Arab, kings  
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LebanonPostcard presents a value book about the History of Lebanon: "Lebanon – A Name through 4000 Years – Entity and Identity" by Antoine Khoury Harb.

Lebanon History 4000 Years, Historical texts, Greek, Roman Byzantine and Arab
“Lebanese Heritage Foundation” Publications >>Extracts of the Book
December 2003 - 172 pages - Hard Cover 28.5 x 28.5 cm

-Available in Arabic as well-

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Part One: Lebanon – The Geographical Entity and the Denomination
Chapter One: Lebanon – Components of its Natural Entity
1- The Geological Formation
2- Characteristics of the Lebanese Natural Environment

Chapter Two: Lebanon – Name Denotation
1- The Name Essence and Value
2- The Etymology of the Name “Lebanon” (The White Mountain – Mountain of Fragrance – Name of a “Mighty Ruler”)

Part Two: Lebanon in Historical Texts
Chapter One: Lebanon in Ancient Near Eastern Texts
History of Writing
1- Lebanon in the Epic of Gilgamesh
2- Lebanon in the Ebla Archives
3- Lebanon in the Pharaonic Texts (The Pharaoh Thutmosis III – The Minister Amenmose – “The Pharaoh Seti I – Wen-Amon the Egyptian)
4- Lebanon in the Hittite Texts (King Suppiluliuma – King Mursili)
5- Lebanon in the Phoenician Texts
Phoenicia: Name Acceptation
A- Lebanon in the Texts of Ugarit
B- The Phoenician Bowl of Limasol (Cyprus)
C- Text of Borj el-Jedid (Carthage)
6- Lebanon in the Assyrian Texts (King Shamshi Adad I – King Tiglath-Pileser I – King Ashur-Nasirpal II – “King of Shalmanassar III – King Tiglath-Pileser III – King Esarhaddon – King Ashur-Banipal – Prince Kouma)
7- Lebanon in the Holy Bible
A- Delimitation of Lebanon in the Old Testament
B- Lebanon and the Promised Land
C- Cedars of Lebanon in the Old Testament
D- Lebanon, Land of Fertility, Inspiration and Beauty
8- Lebanon in the Chaldean Texts (King Nebuchadnezzar II – King Nabonides)
9- Lebanon in the Persian Texts (The Persian King Darius I – The Phoenician King Echmunazar)

Chapter Two: Lebanon in the Greek, Roman and Byzantine Texts
1- Lebanon in the Greek Era Texts
2- Lebanon in the Roman Era Texts
A- Lebanon in the Dionysiaca of Nonnos
B- Lebanon in the Texts of Pilnius, Strabo, Tactius, Josephus and Julius Honorius
C- The Temple of Afqa
D- Lebanon’s Forests during the Roman Period
3- Lebanon on Roman Coins
A- Coins of “Laodicea of Lebanon” (Emperor Septimus Severus – Emperor Caracalla)
B- Coins of “Caesarea of Lebanon” (Emperor Aelius Antoninus – Emperor Marcus Aurelius – Emperor Caracalla – Emperor Macrinus – Emperor Heliogabalus – Emperor Alexandrus Severus)
4- Lebanon in the Byzantine Era Texts
A- The Oriental Prefecture
B- The earthquakes and the fall of the Empire

Chapter Three: Lebanon in the Arab Texts
A- “Mount Lebanon” and its Extension
B- “Mount Lebanon”, Land of Hermits and Anchorites
C- Lebanon in Arabic Poetry


Read the introduction:

“… If the nations are built by their citizens’ will, this will will not proceed from unconsciousness to consciousness, from reaction to action, from a passive state to an active one without awareness. The substance of national awareness is evidently the knowledge of the basic elements of the Nation’s existence. This knowledge is the awaking of the self to realize its potential, and is the source of its self-confidence, and its faith in its own entity.”

It is commonly admitted that any country wouldn’t exist, evolve, ensure and maintain its legal entity and political statute without a profound knowledge and real understanding of the basic elements which uphold the foundation of its existence and legality of its entity.

These elements are:

First: The “land” which is the firm and solid material support of the Entity. The geographical location, the climatic conditions, the morphology of the land and the nature of the soil, all constitute a whole of natural determinative factors that condition and stimulate the History of human existence.

Second: The “people” living on this land, weather autochthonous, foreign or a mixture of both, who give a meaning and vocational guidance to History and define its progression and process.

Third: The “heritage” or the patrimony, in its material and cultural aspects in fields like mythology, religion, society, economy, philosophy, literature, art, science, politics and folklore. This heritage is the expression of the people’s historical personality, and defines the characteristics of their “Historical Identity”, which is the result of the interaction between Man and his natural, human and cultural environment.

These basic elements become more clear over time and prepare for the rising of a political and legal Entity represented by a “State”, which is an expression of a national will, an awareness of belonging to a united and unifying national Entity, and an exclusive loyal allegiance to it.

Relying on these elements, “the State of Greater Lebanon” was proclaimed on September 1st, 1920 by General Henri Gouraud who was commissioned by the French Government to apply the resolutions of the Peace Conference held in Paris. These resolutions stipulated the execution of the Lebanese revendications claimed by the “Administrative Council of Mount Lebanon”. The Council was as a Lebanese Parliament comprising representatives of different Lebanese Parliament comprising representatives of different Lebanese religious groups. The most important of these revendications is the “restitution of Lebanon to its natural and historical boundaries”.

The foundations of the State of Greater Lebanon were strengthened following international recognition and the proclamation of the Mandate Act by the Council of the League of Nations on July 24th, 1922. Thus, the boundaries of this State of Greater Lebanon became those of the present Lebanese Republic which were fixed by the Lebanese Constituion settled on May 23rd, 1926, and officially recognized by the countries affiliated to the United Nations. The “natural and historical boundaries” were settled in response to the Lebanese free will.

One of the most prominent national feelings which is mostly related to the consciousness of allegiance is the sense of sovereignty correlated, in turn, with the existence of the State. This sovereignty is manifested by “the natural right” performed by any citizen on his country’s land in full liberty under the law and justice. But this national right is not an instinctive feeling; it is related to an awareness of its legitimacy. In as much as the citizen is aware of the justifications of his rights and the natural and historical basis of his country, he better perceives the meaning of “national sovereignty”, and urges to safeguard and defend each part of his land. But the awareness of the national structural basis must be strengthened by a good understanding of the concept of the “Nation-Country”.

The country for its citizens, is like “the father” gathering his sons equally, in filial rights: they are sons of one father. They are not joined by a contract of “proprietorship” but by “citizenship”. They must be contributors in the national entity, even if they belong to various groups or tendencies. Any lessening of one citizen’s right harms the whole national entity not only in its form but also in its essence.

A true understanding of the national entity’s basic elements is an introduction leading to the elaboration of a system aiming a “beingness” between the follow citizens, i.e., “to be” together, no “to have” together allotments, shares or rights within a regime of conviviality; they must be aware that they constitute not an “association”, but the elements of a society sharing the same destiny.

I hope that my research will contribute, firstly, to defining the natural geographic dimension of Lebanon as an Entity through the ages, secondly, to forming the first step in the national Lebanese self-awareness, and thirdly, to procuring the fundamental elements of the Lebanese “deed of property” relying in historical, ancient and middle ages documents, from the midst of the 3rd millennium B.C. to the end of the 15th century A.D. Without presenting these documents, “faith” will remain weak, “doubt” will prevail, “mistrust” will freely roam around the Lebanese Entity, enchaining and weakening it in order to dissolve it.

Nothing remains except “Knowledge” to liberate and “Audacity” to rescue.

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